Unlikely to show up on your visa application, but might make travel to China difficult. Does your new job involve travel to China?
it may be possible for the credit card company to get the China Immigration to prevent you from leaving China until you pay up for your debts. This would be inconvenient to say the least, and may also cost you a lot in legal fees. I know this, as my company was involved in a legal wrangle with a Chinese company (about 10 years ago) and I was stuck in China for several weeks whilst lawyers sought to over-rule the decision. In my case, I had been personally implicated in a corporate issue and eventually the judge ruled that my "seizure" was not legal and released me. In your case, they may demand full payment (with interest).
From what you say, morally, you owe the money. I suggest that you contact the CC company and make an agreement with them to settle your debt. If your job and personal life mean that you are not going to travel to China, you might get away with it, but if this were me, I would rather pay up. I take it you have no argument with the fact that you owe the money?
Best of luck